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Printmaking Definitions page 2

Term

Illustrations

An intaglio print or etching and printing demo
Screen Collograph
Drypoint
Lithography
Relief Printing
Cyannotypes

More Intaglio Definitions - dry point, engraving etc.

Lithography

The design is drawn on a stone (or certain types of plates) with a greasy crayon or ink. 

The stone is then processed with a solution of gum arabic, a few drops of nitric acids, depending on the density of the image. The solution is buffed down so the surface is dry, then the drawing is removed using mineral spirits, leaving the gum arabic stencil in place. 

The grease is then reinserted, and then wiped off.

The gum stencil is then removed with water. 

Water adheres to the bare stone and not the greasy areas, while the printing ink does the opposite--it sticks to the greasy areas and not the wet stone.

At this point a roller charged with very stiff litho ink is applied quickly to the stone recharging the drawn areas with a thin layer of ink that is built up through several passes. 

The stone must be kept wet with a cellulose sponge, so the white areas do not accept ink. 

The inking is usually done while the stone is positioned on the press. 

When fully charged, a piece of paper is then placed on the stone, then a static paper next, then a thick layer of plastic is placed on top of both and squeezed through the press.

In the intaglio process the press bed is rolled through. In the litho press the press bed is pressurized then squeezed through.

Pulling the paper off the litho stone after it has been squeezed through the press.

Most of the black and white images are from the Donald Staff, Deli Sacilotto book entitled, "Printmaking"

Example of a lithograph:

Colour lithograph by Gisele

Colour lithograph by Gisele

This image had four printings; yellow, red, blue and black.

 

Top of the pageRelief Prints (Wood cuts, Lino prints)

The relief process is the oldest printmaking process and comes from China, along with papermaking (approx. 840 AD)

Areas of the plate, which can be wood or  linoleum, that are to remain white are cut away with sharp knives and carving tools. 

The German expressionists used this medium as a way to express their raw emotions: 

Max Beckman, self portrait, wood cut print
Max Beckman, self portrait, wood cut

Areas remaining are inked with a brayer, (see examples to the right of this text) and a spoon or press is used to transfer the image to the paper. 

Thin Japanese washi or paper made from plant fibres is often used in this process as it is quite receptive to the ink.

Colour Relief print by Gisele
Colour Relief print by Gisele (left)
A close-up of the vinyl plate for the print above

A close-up of the vinyl plate for the print above

In the colour relief print the complete edition is printed first, then more layers are removed, and printed over top the existing prints. 

For example the black is the first layer, then bue green, then the pinks etc. are last. The intaglio print at the top was printed at the same time as the black plate which is a cut plate method. 

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Rolling out ink using a brayer or roller

Rolling out ink on a slab or glass using a brayer or roller

Rolling the ink onto the wood plate

Rolling the ink onto the wood plate that has some areas removed. Note how the ink does not go below the surface.

A thin piece of absorbant paper is placed over the plate and a spoon is used to polish the back

A thin piece of absorbant paper is placed over the plate and a spoon is used to polish the back, transferring the image to the paper. 

 

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